Who Ratified the Kyoto Protocol


While the signing of the Kyoto Protocol is an important step forward, it does not make the agreement binding on the United States or obliged to implement it. The Protocol may be ratified by the United States only with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. President Clinton has made it clear that he will not present the minutes to the Senate until major developing countries have meaningful participation in the fight against climate change. To date, an additional 59 countries have signed the Protocol and two have ratified it. The protocol defines a “compliance” mechanism as “the monitoring of compliance with obligations and sanctions in the event of non-compliance”. [91] According to Grubb (2003)[92], the explicit consequences of non-compliance with the Treaty are small compared to national law. [92] Nevertheless, the section on compliance with the treaty in the Marrakesh Accords was highly controversial. [92] The Protocol left open several issues that could be decided later by the Sixth COP6 Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague in late 2000, but due to disputes between the European Union (which advocated stricter implementation) and the United States, it was unable to reach an agreement — Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). Although the Kyoto Protocol was a diplomatic feat, its success was far from certain. In fact, reports from the first two years after the treaty entered into force suggested that most participants would not meet their emissions targets. However, even if the targets were met, the ultimate environmental benefits would not be significant, according to some critics, as China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the United States, the world`s second largest emitter, would not be bound by the protocol (China because of its status as a developing country and the United States because it has not ratified the protocol). Other critics claimed that the emission reductions called for in the protocol were too modest to make a demonstrable difference in global temperatures in the decades that followed, even though they were fully achieved with the participation of the United States. At the same time, some developing countries have argued that improving adaptation to climate variability and change is just as important as reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The EU and its Member States ratified the Protocol in May 2002. [95] Of the two conditions, the “55 Parties” clause was adopted on May 23, 2002, when Iceland ratified the Protocol. [1] With Russia`s ratification on November 18, 2004, the “55%” clause was fulfilled and the treaty entered into force on February 16, 2005 after the expiry of the 90-day time limit. [96] Kyoto Protocol, The Comprehensive Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international treaty named after the Japanese city where it was adopted in December 1997 and which aimed to reduce emissions of gases contributing to global warming. The protocol, in force since 2005, planned to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases in 41 countries and the European Union by 5.2% compared to 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 “commitment period”. It has been widely hailed as the most important environmental deal ever negotiated, although some critics have questioned its effectiveness. As of May 2013, 191 countries and one regional economic organization (EC) had ratified the Convention, which accounts for more than 61.6% of emissions from Annex I 1990. [97] One of the 191 states that have ratified the Protocol – Canada – has renounced the Protocol.

To enter into force, the Protocol had to be ratified by countries accounting for 55 per cent of these emissions. In November, Russia ratified the Protocol, thus fulfilling the conditions for the Protocol`s entry into force within 90 days, and on 16 February 2005 it officially entered into force. The provisions of the Protocol apply only to countries that have ratified it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted as the first amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that required its signatories to develop national programs to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) affect the energy balance of the global atmosphere in a way that is expected to lead to a general increase in global average temperature called global warming (see also greenhouse effect). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, the long-term effects of global warming would include a general rise in global sea level, leading to flooding of low-lying coastal areas and the possible disappearance of some island States; melting glaciers, sea ice and Arctic permafrost; an increase in the number of extreme weather events such as floods and droughts and changes in their distribution; and an increased risk of extinction for 20 to 30 percent of all plant and animal species. .

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